REMOURBAN is a large-scale demonstration project, whose objective is to accelerate urban transformation towards the concept of smart city taking into account all aspects of sustainability. The demonstration addresses a holistic intervention in Valladolid (Spain), well balanced in terms of actions on energy, mobility and ICT, which is monitored and properly evaluated. The interventions of the mobility sector focus on improving the sustainability of urban mobility, safety and the reduction of atmospheric and acoustic pollution. Energy sector interventions focus on achieving low energy and low carbon emission districts, and ICT sector actions focus on the integration of urban infrastructures to take advantage of their isolated performance. The demonstration in Valladolid aims to reduce 50% of the energy consumed and 80% of CO2 emissions, actively involves more than 5,700 citizens, reduces consumption of the target district by at least 50% (398 apartments and dwellings, total 24,600 m2) and switch to central heating system renewable energy, deploy more than 50 electric vehicles (buses, taxis, car sharing and last mile delivery), improve charging infrastructure by adding fast loading points, implement an information platform for the city, gathering more than 5,000 variables and deploying several value-added services (for the management of energy demand).
Type of territory
Valladolid is a medium-sized city located in the center-north of Spain. It has 301,876 inhabitants (data of 2016), but it has a metropolitan area where 0.5 million people live. It is the administrative capital of the region of Castilla y León and the focus of the metropolitan area of Valladolid, composed of several surrounding municipalities that represent more than 400,000 inhabitants. Valladolid, located at a height of 690m.a.s.l. Under a Mediterranean continental climate, it occupies a strategic position in the north of Spain, so it has been a center of industrial development since the 50s.
Regarding the climatic conditions, the Mediterranean continental climate is the typical climate of the north-central area of Spain, as well as of Valladolid. The winters are quite cold, with fairly low temperatures and generally cloudy days. Mornings or even whole days are often cloudy due to irradiation (around 60 days per year). Summer is the driest season and temperatures often exceed 30 °C with a significant range due to the flow of sunlight from solar radiation, and also due to nocturnal radioactive exchange to the sky. According to this, heating is the main energy demand in buildings, since cooling devices are usually not present in homes.
The city of Valladolid is included in the initiative "Smart City of Valladolid and Palencia", which covers a series of challenges for the city in the framework of technological, social and economic innovation directly related to citizens, the industrial network and administrations . Therefore, this initiative seeks to position Valladolid as a benchmark in the fields of sustainable development and as drivers of innovation within the framework of the CE Joint Plan.
The REMOURBAN project aims to help Valladolid in the urban transformation towards a more intelligent and sustainable city. The interventions included in the REMOURBAN project aim to reduce 50% of the energy consumed and 80% of CO2 emissions, actively involving more than 5,700 citizens. To this end, the consumption of the target district has been reduced by 50% (398 homes, in total 24,600 m2), fossil fuels have been replaced by renewable sources in the central heating system, a fleet of electric vehicles has been deployed (buses, taxis, car sharing), the charging infrastructure has been improved incorporating fast loading points and an information platform has been developed for the city, which gathers more than 5,000 variables and displays several value-added services (for the management of energy demand).
To help Valladolid in its urban transformation, a district was chosen to demonstrate a set of interventions that has improved the energy conditions of the buildings, but also the quality of life of the inhabitants of the area. The main objective of the implementation of these interventions is not only to improve the conditions of the chosen area, but to use the results and knowledge obtained to replicate these interventions in other areas of the city and also in any city in the world.
The district of FASA, the chosen neighborhood, is located in the southeast of Valladolid. It has an area of 3.5 hectares and belongs to the neighborhood of Delicias, which was the first neighborhood built outside the track, during the decades of the 50s and 60s. With some variations of the original plan, the FASA district, which was designed and built to principles of the 60s for workers of the company FASA, consists of 19 blocks, a tower, a building for central boilers, a park, some sports facilities and 2 parkings. Some of the buildings have their main facades oriented east and west and the rest to the northeast and southwest.
The district's energy system consisted of two fossil fuel boilers (natural gas and heating oil) to provide thermal energy for each of the buildings. The boiler room is located in a separate building and contains equipment for the generation and distribution of thermal energy. The boiler room is located in the center of the urbanization and provided only thermal energy for the heating system to 19 building blocks and the tower. The distribution of thermal energy was made through three circuits of different dimensions that provide heating through simple constant flow pumps. There are thermal energy exchange substations on the ground floor of each building that consists of a tubular heat exchanger and a pump with three mixing valves. Inside each building, the heat distribution is vertical by several pipes that feed the radiators in each apartment. Domestic hot water (DHW) is produced individually in each home with different technologies depending on the source of energy in each particular case: natural gas, butane and electricity.
With regard to mobility, there is a total figure of 169,511 vehicles (source JCYL-SIE, 2013), which is 133,371 cars, which means that there are 388.20 automobiles per 1,000 inhabitants registered. The total number of taxi licenses in the city has been constant in the last 10 years, totaling 466. Regarding public transport buses, in Valladolid there are a total of 150, most of them manufactured by the company MAN (117 buses). Less participation of other brands such as IVECO (20 buses), MERCEDES BENZ (8 buses) and IVECO PEGASO (5 buses). Three types of fuel are used for buses: 103 buses have LPG fuel, while 46 buses use diesel fuel and there is a hybrid bus. The public transport network includes buses from 4 years to 18 years following an almost linear distribution: 50% are around 12 years old, while 25% are around 7 years old and 75% are 16 years old.
REMOURBAN chose one of the lines to improve its sustainability. Line 7 is considered one of Valladolid's emblematic bus lines since its route runs from the southwest to the northeast of the city, crossing the city through the city center and the historic area. Therefore, it basically covers the city and has been chosen as potentially containing most of the representative information regarding traffic conditions in the city. Within the framework of the REMOURBAN project, Valladolid is carrying out interventions in the three main pillars of the project -energy, mobility and ICT- to improve its sustainability and intelligence.
Detail of subsidies
The total investment (€ 8,993,503.03) is divided into the following sections: Retrofit of the District (€ 2,286,000.13), District heating and distributed generation (€ 1,892,606.9), Mobility (€ 4,581,300) ) and Integrated Infrastructures (€ 233,600).€ 3,760,251.10 (42%) were financed by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant Agreement n. 646511. 2,673,250 € (30%) were contributions from the Municipality of Valladolid City Council and 2,577,208.03 € are covered by private funds.
The main objectives defined in the REMOURBAN project for Valladolid in relation to urban mobility interventions are:
- Improve transportation efficiency
- Improvement of penetration rates of FEV / FHEV vehicles in the different vehicle fleets
- Reduce investment in energy in transportation
- Reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions
- Promote the use of public transport
- Optimize the use of the fleet of vehicles of the City of Valladolid
- Improve the recharging infrastructure for public use, which is necessary to promote the adoption of electric vehicles in the city
To achieve the identified objectives, several actions have been defined within the project:
- Increase the FEV / PHEV fleet in Valladolid:
- 5 buses
- 2 FEV vehicles for the City Council's private fleet and the deployment of a vehicle sharing service
- 45 private electric vehicles (taxis, last mile fleets, private vehicles)
- Car sharing service
- Improve the charging infrastructure in Valladolid:
- Electric bus charging infrastructure
- Public charging infrastructure: 18 standard charging points and 1 fast EV chassis station
- 22 loading of private charging points for public use
Smart City strategy
The energy, transport and ICT sectors are essential for the day-to-day of the city. In fact, these sectors are widely considered as potentially appropriate for achieving economic and social benefits, because they are key to the quality of life of citizens and also represent the majority of people's interrelations with technology. REMOURBAN aims to develop and validate in three lighthouse cities, one of them being Valladolid, a model of sustainable urban regeneration that takes advantage of the convergence area of the energy, mobility and ICT sectors to accelerate the deployment of innovative, organizational technologies and economic solutions to significantly increase the efficiency of resources and energy, improve the sustainability of urban transport and drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions in urban areas. This model of urban regeneration aimed at decision makers, investors, public sector and industry, combines appropriate technological solutions and innovative financial schemes (new business plan) to drastically improve the sustainability of the city, actively involve citizens and guarantee a high level of potential for replication at European level.
From the ICT point of view, a city information platform has been developed within the REMOURBAN project. The Information Platform of the City of Valladolid is the system in charge of collecting, tracking and processing all the variables that are monitored in the city to comply with the requirements of the REMOURBAN implementation and monitoring plan, which will evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions carried out in the different areas: buildings and energy districts, urban mobility and integrated infrastructures, calculating a set of efficiency indicators based on these supervised variables, in line with the main concept of smart cities and allowing decision-making for new improvements and new interventions.
The city platform will collect these variables from local sensor networks, data sources and IoT devices. Taking into account the value of these data, the ICT platform has also been created to analyze and present this information through graphs, reports and other resources within a web interface.
Finally, the city platform will share its variables with the global REMOURBAN platform, which centralizes and stores the entire set of variables from the three cities participating in REMOURBAN (Valladolid, Nottingham and Tepebasi), acting in turn as a source of data for some central services developed to take full advantage of the information stored on this platform by offering specific value added services to end users.
Climate adaptation, resources conservation, GHG emissions
The intervention plan foreseen for the FASA district combines a set of measures in the fields of energy, mobility and ICT, implementing specific priority actions (technologies and innovative solutions) aimed at improving the sustainability of this area by increasing energy efficiency and the reduction of GHG emissions in this area.
To achieve the objectives related to the low energy districts, an intensive plan of adaptation of the buildings was implemented in all the buildings of the district (24,700 m2 of conditioned area) taking advantage of the homogeneity of the existing constructive and aesthetic solutions. Therefore, the energy demand of these buildings has been drastically reduced by the implementation of profitable strategies related to walls and ceilings while allowing the implementation of measures of active energy production in the building envelope (for example, the integrated photovoltaic construction).
The second set of priority actions related to achieving this "low energy district" are related to district heating and DHW systems, through the improvement of existing thermal heating (changing the source of energy from gas to renewable energy sources, renewing the heating network and improving the efficiency of the system) and the integration of the current individual domestic hot water systems in this thermal network.
Finally, these actions have been combined with an ICT platform designed to control energy efficiency and integrated into an advanced control system for district heating and the comfort of indoor spaces.
In addition to the energy savings produced by passive interventions, the REMOURBAN project aims to integrate renewable energy sources as a system of distributed generation in buildings to promote social acceptance of these innovative solutions and demonstrate their effectiveness.
To achieve this goal, a ventilated photovoltaic facade integrated into the south facade of the tower has been installed.
In this south facade of the tower, there are two large areas that stand out from the rest of the south façade, with the sunniest spaces in terms of kWh / year. In these areas, a photovoltaic ventilated façade with a sufficient surface area has been installed to reach 27.4 kW of power and an annual output of 24,400 kWh.
As for the generation of heat for the district heating system and sanitary hot water, the existing gas boilers were replaced by two new biomass boilers. Therefore, the main heat production is covered by the biomass boilers (90%) supported by the gas boiler (10%) in periods of peak demand.
The FASA neighborhood was built during the 60s by the workers of the Renault factory in Valladolid, and is composed of 19 blocks of 5 floors, a tower of 14 and a building containing the thermal power plant that supplies heating to the 398 homes that they make up the neighborhood. These buildings presented serious deficiencies in their thermal insulation that resulted in lack of comfort as well as low energy efficiency.
The heating system consisted of a district network supplied by two fossil fuel boilers (natural gas and heating) and was divided into three different circuits that provide heating to the 398 homes, while domestic hot water (DHW) was produced individually in each house with different technologies depending on the source of energy in each particular case: natural gas, butane and electricity.
In REMOURBAN, with the objective of converting the neighborhood into a Near Zero Energy District, a set of actions was designed to modify both the building envelope and the current thermal generation systems. These actions are described in the following lines:
DISTRICT RETROFITTING: FACADES, ROOFING, LIGHTING RENOVATION IN COMMON AREAS AND DISTRIBUTED GENERATION:
The aim of the REMOURBAN project is to reduce energy consumption as much as possible with cost-effective solutions and different funding sources (European Commission through the REMOURBAN project, local government grants fund and owners' investment). In this way, the following interventions have been selected.
PASSIVE INTERVENTIONS: external thermal insulation of facades and roofs
The lack of insulation in the entire envelope and large thermal bridges are the main problems that affect the district's energy performance. Therefore, the best profitable solutions to improve the envelope are:
External thermal insulation of the facades
By means of this intervention, the buildings could be isolated avoiding in addition the typical thermal bridges (slabs and pillars) when the internal insulation is installed. All the facades of the buildings in contact with the houses have been isolated with the ETICS system. The system consists of a 60 mm EPS insulation plate fixed to the brick wall by means of adhesives and mechanical fixings; after this, a first layer of mortar, a fiberglass mesh and a second layer of mortar is applied. The last step is to apply a finish that provides the aesthetic appearance chosen.
Thermal insulation of roofs
In the FASA district there are two types of solutions, one for the sloping roofs of the blocks and another for the flat roof of the tower. In the case of the blocks, the interventions consist, first of all, in an intensive cleaning of the space between the last concrete slab and the sloping roof, since it has been used constantly by the birds to live there. Once the slabs were completely clean, the polyurethane foam was sterilized until it reached a thickness of at least 60 mm. The density of the foam must be less than 36 kg / m3 to reach the level of planned thermal insulation. Finally, all the accesses that are used to ventilate this space were closed with a metal mesh to prevent the entry of birds.
In the case of the tower, the intervention consisted of installing on the existing asphalt waterproof layer a geotextile layer, 80mm of mineral wool with asphalt finish on the top and a second asphalt layer on the insulating panels.
ACTIVE INTERVENTIONS: renovation of lighting in common areas, photovoltaic solar installation integrated in facade and biomass heat network
Renovation of lighting in common areas
All the lights found in the landings, portals and stairs of the building have been replaced by LED lamps of between 15 and 20 W of power and 1500-2000 lm of luminous power.
Distributed generation: solar photovoltaic installation integrated in the facade
The enormous potential of solar energy in Spain is wasted due to the lack of awareness and the high cost of building integrated solutions. From REMOURBAN, we want to encourage investment in the BIPV solution to demonstrate its effectiveness, in this way, a ventilated facade has been installed on the south facade of the tower with photovoltaic glass cladding panels. On the south facade of this tower, there are two large areas that stand out from the rest of the south façade, which are the sunniest spaces in terms of kWh / year. In these areas, a photovoltaic ventilated façade with sufficient surface area was installed to reach 27.4 kW of power and an annual output of 24,400 kWh.
RENEWAL OF DISTRICT HEATING:
Boiler room: biomass boilers
Renovations in the boiler room of the district included the installation of two new biomass boilers, a biomass silo, an inertia tank, a hydraulic separator, two collectors and three pumping stations. All this equipment is inside the boiler room.
The new biomass silo feeds the two new boilers, where thermal energy is produced together with the old gas boiler. To ensure an adequate inlet temperature of the water to the biomass boilers, an intermediate storage tank was installed.
The heated water is collected in a hydraulic separator. From there, it goes to an intake manifold where the flow is divided into three pumping stations, one for each circuit. Each station consists of two pumps with a frequency converter.
When the water returns to the boiler room, it is collected from each circuit by the return manifold. From there, it goes to the hydraulic separator, where the flow is collected before it is stored in the three different boilers.
District heating network:
The functionality of the district heating network is to distribute the hot water from the boiler room to the buildings, where the heat exchange substations will be located.
There was an existing district heating network, which was built together with the buildings and provided heating to all the houses. The new district heating not only provides heating, but also sanitary hot water (DHW). Therefore, it must meet the energy needs of heating and domestic hot water.
The above DH network used superheated water (120 ° C). The new district heating generates water at 85ºC, thus reducing heat losses. In addition, the new pipes are better insulated, in order to minimize heat losses.
All circuits have a leak detection system that mitigates the problems caused by leaks, which were very common in the original network due to their deterioration over the years.
Each building has a substation. Its function is to transfer heat from the DH network to the building's DHW storage tank and to the heat exchanger of the heating system. Then, the heated water is pumped to the different homes according to their energy needs. Each pumping station is composed of two pumps with a frequency converter that allows the generation of energy to be adapted to the real needs of the end users.
To determine the energy consumption, two energy meters have been installed in the substations. The first has been located before the heat exchanger and the second before the intermediate storage tank. Therefore, the heating and DHW consumption in each building can be measured.
Control and measurement at the housing level
Originally, the houses had no heating control system. To improve efficiency and energy comfort, a system has been installed to control the heating work hours to ensure comfort with minimum consumption. To fulfill that purpose, thermostatic valves were installed in each radiator. These valves allow to control the temperature in any room of the house at any time. Therefore, the heated areas are those in which a user is located, avoiding energy losses in unoccupied areas.
La demostración en Valladolid apunta a la reducción del 50% de la energía consumida y el 80% de las emisiones de CO2, involucra activamente a más de 5.700 ciudadanos, reduce al menos un 50% el consumo del distrito objetivo (398 pisos y viviendas, total 24.600 m2) y cambiar a las energías renovables el sistema de calefacción centralizada, desplegar más de 50 vehículos eléctricos (autobuses, taxis, uso compartido de automóviles y entrega de última milla), mejorar la infraestructura de carga agregando puntos de carga rápidos, implementar una plataforma de información de la ciudad, reunir más de 5.000 variables y desplegar varios servicios de valor agregado (para la gestión de la demanda de energía).