- Building Type : Isolated or semi-detached house
- Construction Year : 2012
- Delivery year : 2013
- Address 1 - street : 40400 SAN RAFAEL-EL ESPINAR (SEGOVIA), España
- Climate zone :
- Net Floor Area : 277 m2
- Construction/refurbishment cost : 156 620 €
- Cost/m2 : 565.42 €/m2
Primary energy need :
(Calculation method : RD: 47/2007 )
The house is built reusing five shipping containers. The dwelling has been designed to be energy efficient without compromising any habitable or comfort condition.
The concept behind the design is based on the 4R:
* Reduce intake materials.
* Reuse items with a new purpose.
* Recycle items which have already been used.
The preferred materials are those that come from a natural source or those materials that come from low cost processing or recycling process, without falling into radical approaches involving inefficiencies or unbearable overcosts.
DesignerBeades Arquitectos & Salvador Martín Moreno firstname.lastname@example.org
DeveloperSalvador Martín Moreno y María Rosa Liquete Ramos email@example.com
Owner approach of sustainability
The aim of the design was to build a self-sufficient home, using renewable energy and sustainable materials that would meet at least one of these requirements: natural resources, low cost production and processing or materials suitable to be reused or recycled. The design objectives were: * Avoid falling into sustainability doctrines or fashions that could involve extra costs. * Selection of natural and low environmental impact materials on equal quality-price ratio. * Achieve maximum durability with minimal maintenance. * Reduce environmental impact and building time.
The building is a self-promoting three storey detached house, one is a semibasement, one above ground level and another the atic. The most remarkable fact about the building is that the structural system is a set of used ship containers. The building energy performance has been carefully designed to achieve an A rating and reduce the CO2 emissions and operating costs. A square plan shape has been used to achieve minimum heat losses. At the south edge of the square a winter garden has been attached, to improve heat gain. The ground floor is divided in three areas, one for the main living room and kitchen, and two areas on the sides for bedrooms that correspond with the containers shape. On the ground floor the containers host facilities and services. The top floor is an open space connected to the living room. The design process has involved an extensive data collection and research on container construction, usage, processing and transport. It has also led to an investigation on compatibility between the containers structural support and enclosure. Some energy aspects of the project are: * Alternative energy use: geothermal heat pump for heat, DHW and passive cold. * Underfloor HVAC with room thermostats. * Mechanical ventilation heat recovery * Natural light and ventilation in all rooms. * Efficient lighting, energy saving lamps with PIR sensor. * High performance thermal insulation with vapor and air tightness barrier. * HVAC support with a biomass stove.
Building users opinion
It is difficult to do a balanced assessment when you are promoter, owner and architect of the building all at the same time.
The building is guaranteed to be the result of many hours of research and dedication, not only to the design and calculation, but also during the construction process itself.
Virtually nothing is left to chance and the results obtained are consistent and even improve the expected results in some aspects.
The behavior of the winter garden at the south façade is particularly noteworthy. It is a magnificent thermal cushion allowing warm air on sunny and cool days. Measurements have showed temperatures of 35º at midday in the winter garden while it was snowy outside at 3ºC.
The house has been occupied only on weekends and heated to 22-23°. When the house was left on Sunday, the thermostats were set to 16 º. Upon return the following weekend the Geothermal heat pump had not been switched on, and the temperature had not dropped below 19º, thanks to the splendid insulation used and the convective loop between the dwelling and the winter garden. It is fair to note that these experiences date back from 2011 spring, which are not as severe as those in winter but are harder than the usual in the rest of Spain.
The building's performance has demonstrated to be specially efficient during the summer, when it has not been necessary using the Geothermal heat pump in "passive cooling" mode.
- 32 kWhpe/m2.year
- 119 kWhpe/m2.year
- 24 kWhfe/m2.year
- 0 W.m-2.K-1
- 3 KgCO2/m2/year
- 75 year(s)
Life Cycle Analysis
- 130 m3
Indoor Air quality
Geothermal heat pump
Heating by a 10KW geothermal heat pump and a 200l buffer tank to balance the distribution system, including DHW and underfloor water heating. The energy collection was performed by a vertical closed circuit drilled on the granitic ground. The system uses a web control software to monitor and control the operation of the geothermal heat pump.
The dwelling is heated by a geothermal heat pump that involves a DHW storage tank and a buffer tank to balance the distribution system that includes underfloor heating. The choice of the geothermal system has been made to take advantage of the extraordinary geological characteristics of the area. This guarantees an adequate heat exchange and high efficiency heat pump. Being a low temperature the system is optimal for underfloor heating.
The energy and environmental benefits of using this technology are remarkable, it takes advantage of a widely available and renewable local source that also offers high energy efficiency. The system allows up to 75% saving in heating mode. Given the local climate is not necessary to have an active cooling system, just using passive cooling by recirculation of antifreeze liquid at the geothermal loop gives enough cool to the house without switching on the heat pump.
S. Rafael has a harsh weather with 1320m of altitude. The environment is a urban sprawl of detached houses built on a northern slope with little sunlight. There are a lot of trees, mostly oaks, and the landscape is dominated by the peak of the mountain called "Brave Cave" that is 1900m high. Prevailing cold winds come from the NE in the winter, but in summer the NW wind brings water and storms. The terrain contains large amounts of granite and over it lays a 1m thick fertile earth surface. Below that the granite disintegrates becoming more compact as it deepens. Below 3m it is not uncommon to find big granite rocks. The place is called Arteseros because of the number of wells all over the hillside. The location of the building does not have enough sunlight on summer because of external barriers and orientation. The lack of sunlight to produce solar energy for DHW is compensated with other alternative energy systems such as geothermal heat pump or a biomass stove.
An enclosed garage is avoided to favor more productive service spaces. This has been done to be coherent with the idea of an energy efficient building and low resource consumption. Below the cantilevered 1st floor there is a large space for maneuver and parking of vehicles to protect them from the hard winter and the summer sunlight.
* Reducir los objetos de consumo
* Reutilizar los que ya hemos usado
* Reciclar los productos dándoles otra finalidad
* Research (investigar).
Hemos utilizado preferentemente materiales de origen natural y de bajo coste de transformación y reciclaje, sin caer por ello en planteamientos radicales que supongan ineficiencias o costes inasumibles.En nuestros proyectos de edificios pasivos hemos valorado el ahorro energético respeto el edificio estándar de referencia, el coste por metro cuadrado (565m2) y las emisiones de GEI en la etapa de uso, estos datos han sido cuidado al extremo y nos llevaron a ganar el premio al caso de estudio más ecoeficiente de Construction 21 en su edición del 2014.