Launch of the Green Solutions thematic focuses ! With, as the first subject, renovation. Pierre Verri, vice-president of Grenoble-Alpes Métropole in charge of air, energy and climate, intervenes as a great witness of this focus: he talks to us about the renovation policy carried out in the city of Grenoble.
How important is renovation for a community such as the city of Grenoble?
Renovation is a key subject for Grenoble-Alpes Métropole. Through our Metropolitan Climate Air Energy Plan 2020-2030 and our energy master plan, we have set ourselves the objectives of reducing our energy consumption by 22%, including a 30% reduction in fossil fuel consumption. At the same time, we want to increase our production of renewable and recovered energy (ENR&R) to reach 35% of final energy consumption.
To do this, we plan with our Climate Air Energy Plan 2020-2030 to undertake or support:
- the renovation of 9,000 individual houses out of the 21,000 present in our territory;
- the renovation of 25,000 private collective dwellings out of 75,000;
- and the renovation of 7,000 collective social housing units out of 25,000.
The 2020-2030 Climate Air Energy Plan is therefore the cornerstone for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, adapting to climate change and improving air quality in the territories of our metropolis. .
More concretely, how are these objectives translated on the ground?
In order to achieve these objectives, we have developed several lines of action to be taken. First of all, there is the wall-to-wall renovation campaign policy – implemented in 2010 – which has now become a public service. Indeed, the metropolis of Grenoble has acquired the public service competence of the energy efficiency of housing. This allows us to contribute to an annual budget.
For example, as Vice-President of Grenoble-Alpes Métropole in charge of air, energy and climate, I had the city take a deliberation in February, with the aim of tripling our budget devoted to the energy renovation of private housing over the next 3 years. More specifically, it is a public investment of 9 million euros. This will generate nearly 70 million euros of work with local businesses, and 1,200 to 1,400 jobs.
At the same time, in December 2021, we allocated a budget of 1.5 million euros to support local authorities and companies – VSEs and SMEs with less than 50 employees – to take the step of energy renovation. With our Local Public Company (SPL) Local Energy and Climate Agency (ALEC), we provide them with technical assistance, such as the design of specifications or the diagnosis of energy performance, but also assistance with works, with the obtaining of subsidies from the State, local authorities or any body which can finance part of these renovations.
From the issue of the building to that of the territory: how have you integrated the question of renovation into the evolution of the PLUi? Is there a link with the objective of zero net land take (ZAN)?
First of all, it is only since 2017 that the metropolises exercise by right, instead of the member municipalities, the powers of planning of metropolitan space and local housing policy.
The scope of the ZAN objective has been clearly reinforced by the Climate Law andResilience, promulgated in August 2021, even if the latter is subsequent to our PLUi, approved in December 2019. The city of Grenoble had also anticipated this objective, in particular with the Alur law of 2014 which gave recommendations on the ZAN, by registering from 2014 in the PLUi the moderation of the use of urban space.
Our anticipation on this subject is reflected in particular by the objective of transforming and upgrading 35% of the urbanized plots of our territory into agricultural plots by 2030. Thus, since 2014, 150 hectares of urban land have been converted into agricultural.
Regarding the energy renovation of buildings, our objectives have been transcribed into the PLUi. For example, article 10 on energy performance stipulates on the one hand the minimum energy requirement to be achieved according to the energy saving certificate (EEC) sheets as well as the BBC renovation label. And on the other hand, this legislative text lists all the energy performance labels for new constructions.
Compared to efficient constructions, we have exceeded the standards of the RT2012 by 20% throughout the metropolitan territory. Some sectors even reached -30% compared to RT2012.
Finally, we have included in article 7 of our PLUi the need to increase the share of renewable energy, in particular with the obligation to connect to heating networks when these exist. The heating networks have therefore been classified. Thus, for any construction or when a renovation requires touching the heating system, a connection to the heating network is imperative.
Are you encountering any obstacles or difficulties in implementing your 2020-2030 Climate Air Energy Plan?
With the aim of massive renovation on French territory, the State launched MaPrimeRénov' (MPR) in 2020, replacing the tax credit for energy transition (CITE) and the various aids from the National Agency for Energy. 'Habitat (Anah). With MPR, the State offers 3,750 euros in subsidies per household – whatever their level of income – to homeowners' associations. As a result, very modest and modest households no longer have the possibility of combining the various state, Anah and metropolitan aid. This sometimes results in leftovers of more than 15,000 euros for a modest or very modest household, which is completely inconsiderate. This is why some condominiums refuse to undertake renovation work.
On our side, in order to compensate for the reductions in state subsidies, the city of Grenoble and its member municipalities pay between 6,000 and 8,000 euros per very modest and modest household owner of a dwelling. This most often results in outstanding balances of 5,000 to 6,000 euros, as before the launch of MPR.
Local authorities are therefore in the process of replacing the various state authorities. This is why I called on local deputies and the Minister for Ecological Transition Barbara Pompili to highlight these dangers, which are even more significant in municipalities and local authorities which have less financial means. There is therefore a real economic question that arises with MPR.
In your opinion, what role should local authorities play in incentives for renovation?
If we really want to save energy and achieve carbon neutrality, then local authorities must monopolize the crucial issue of renovation and make it a priority in their action plans.
Beyond local authorities, we must also raise awareness among citizens. In this spirit, the Grenoble metropolitan area has just launched the Citizen's Climate Convention, for which 120citizens are drawn at random from among the 450,000 inhabitants. They are asked for their recommendations with the aim of reducing our greenhouse gas emissions and our energy consumption, but also the way in which each citizen must or should invest in these subjects.
At the end of 2022, the president of Grenoble-Alpes Métropole, Christophe Ferrari, will organize an extraordinary metropolitan council to deal with all the questions and all the proposals that will be formulated by the Citizen's Climate Convention. For the most complex issues, it is for example not excluded to hold a referendum, in particular with the aim of raising awareness and empowering the citizens of the city of Grenoble.
Interview by the Construction21 editorial staff