Smarter Together Vienna Simmering
- Address 1 - street : 1200 MARIA-RESTITUTA-PLATZ 1, Austria
- Gross density : 11.18 housing/ha
- Population : 21 000 hab
- Number of jobs : 900 jobs
- Starting year of the project : 2016
- Delivery year of the project : 2019
- Key words : Smart City, urban renewal, citizen's participation, refurbishment, holistic refurbiSHment, e-mobility, infrastructure, data management
80 000 000 €
Vienna’s “Smarter Together” urban renewal project area is located in the district of Simmering between the main road “Simmeringer Hauptstraße” and the Eastern rail track (i.e. the quarters of Geiselberg, Enkplatz, Braunhuberviertel). In total, 21.000 inhabitants will directly benefit from smart solutions in the areas of refurbishment of large scale social housing, energy savings, smart e-mobility (including industrial mobility) and information and communication technology.
Smarter Together Vienna
Smarter Together is an EU-funded project under the Horizon 2020 Programme bringing together the Lighthouse Cities of Lyon, Munich and Vienna as well as the Follower Cities of Santiago de Compostela, Sofia and Venice and the Observer Cities of Kiev and Yokohama.
The project was launched in February 2016 and includes an implementation phase until 2019, followed by monitoring and evaluation activities to be concluded in 2021. The total EU funding of 25 million euros and 7 million euros for Vienna respectively, triggered a total investment of over 80 million euros and over 40 single projects in Vienna alone. Important initiatives for the Smart City urban renewal of Simmering have been triggered. More recently, Smarter Together has joined the EU network of 80 Lighthouse Cities contributing its experience to the common European Smart City vision.
You can listen to this podcast (in French) for more information :
- Public facilities and infrastructure
- Public spaces
Method used to calculate CO2 impact
As per project proposal adopted by the European Commission.
- Operational phase
- Quality of life
- Smart city
- Energy /Climate
Type of territory
Vienna's "Smarter Together" urban renewal project area is located in the district of Simmering, Vienna's 11th district in the south-east. It is characterized by its working class history, a diverse building stock with a high share of municipal and subsidized housing. With a higher than average percentage of citizens with migration backgrounds and lower than average levels of education, the project area is a perfect testbed for a real life implementation of innovative solutions that are relevant for replication. Important industrial production and service sites do persist and provide jobs. It is a district in transformation.
[Dfa] Humid Continental Hot Summer, Wet All Year
Total investment costs (before tax)
80 000 000 € HT
Total of subsidies
7 000 000 € HT
BWSG is a Limited Profit Housing Association (LPHA) and project partner of Smarter Together due to the smart refurbishment process of one of its housing estated in Simmering. This housing estate in Hauffgasse 37-47 was built by the social housing BWSG in the late 1970s. There are 486 flats, a community centre and a kiosk. The thermal refurbishment of the façade has reduced heat energy demand by 81 percent, from 103 kWh/m² per year to approximately 22 kWh/m² per year. In addition, the project partner “KELAG Energie & Wärme” installed a 280 m² large PV System with 56 kWp on the roof. The electricity generated will be used for warm water supply and will save about 55-60 MWh per year. The energy savings and the CO2 emission reductions are a valuable contribution to combating climate change. The living comfort has also increased significantly through the improvement of elevators, staircases and communal facilities. Green areas will be upgraded as well. In addition, as part of the renovation, 79 new apartments will be built on the top of the existing skyscrapers. The mediation institute wohnbund:consult fostered on behalf of the BWSG the dialogue and social interaction during the refurbishment process. wohnbund:consult is a key partner in all dialogue activities of Smarter Together including the installation and running of the e-car-sharing project.BWSG owns and manages some 30.000 flats all over Austria, therefore the expected economic, environmental and societal impat in regards to replication is considered especially high.
https://www.zukunftwohnen.net/ , http://www.bwsg.at/de/home
Kelag Energie und Wärme
Kelag Energie & Wärme provides energy solutions in the refurbishment estate of BWSG (see above). The project partner “KELAG Energie & Wärme” installed a 280 m² large PV System with 56 kWp on the roof. The electricity generated will be used for warm water supply and will save about 55-60 MWh per year. The energy savings and the CO2 emission reductions are a valuable contribution to combating climate change. Kelag Energie und Wärme is well established in a series of federal lands of Austria and therefore the expected economic, environmental and societal impat in regards to replication is considered especially high.
Stadt Wien, Wiener Wohnen
"Stadt Wien, Wiener Wohnen" is formally a department of the city of Vienna and the biggest social housing management in Europe owning some 220.000 municipal flats. Two estates are included in the Smarter Together project: Lorystraße 54-60 with 95 flats and Herbortgasse 43 with 52 flats and 8 additional flats being built on the roof. In the Lorystraße-estate, the thermal refurbishment of the façade reduced the heat energy demand by more than 80 percent, from 130 kWh/m²yr to approximately 23 kWh/m²yr. Additionally, a 50 m² large PV- System with 9 kWp was installed at the roof. The electricity generated will be used for elevators, laundries and other common facilities. In the Herbortgasse-estate the thermal refurbishment of the façade will reduce heat energy demand by about 75 percent, from 118 kWh/m²yr to approximately 28 kWh/m²yr. 8 additional flats are constructed in a rooftop extension.Considering the fact that Wiener Wohnen is the biggest social housing provider in Vienna (and above) the expected economic, environmental and societal impat in regards to replication is considered especially high.
Siemens holds the biggest industrial site in the project area of Smarter Together Vienna. The Siemens plant in Simmering is a worldwide successful high-tech enterprise in the construction of railways and metro lines. The knowledge and the commitment of the staff at all levels represents a special added value. Within the EU-project, innovative ideas suggested from within the work force have been implemented. As a result, new energy-saving charging stations for small devices have been tested an subsequently rolled out. A new centre for small items logistics has been designed and built, adding value to the initial new e-forklifts. The consumption of diesel has been reduced drastically by 20.000 liters diesels per year thanks to this set of measures and the ecological balance of the industrial site improved. Another result of the co-creative process is the installation of charging stations for employees’ e-bikes as well as two charging stations for e-cars.
The Wiener Stadtwerke Group makes an important contribution to the functioning of the City of Vienna and is project partner of Smarter Together. The reliable and environmentally friendly supply of energy is also the responsibility of the Group, as is the guarantee of efficient public transport. Another group division is Funeral and Cemeteries Vienna. Wiener Stadtwerke provide district heating solutions as well as network solutions. They are key partner in the densificaiton task of distance heating and key in the refurbishment of the scholl complex where four zero energy gyms are being built (already finalized) that interlink a series of renewable energy sources with the district heating network. The branch "Wiener Linien" is key in the set up of Vienna's first Mobility Station in Simmering within the Smarter Together project. Since September 2018, Vienna’s first public mobility point has been providing different mobility services in one location. The “WienMobil Station” offers an all-season public e-bike and e-cargo bike terminal, a charging station for e-cars, a car-sharing station, lockable bike boxes, a digital information terminal, an air pump and public seating. The main operator is “Wiener Linien”. It is co-operating with 4 different sub-operators which underlines the connected approach of future mobility.The Vienna Cemeteries are partner in the provision of a e-bikesharing station at the Central Cemetery.
Österreichische Post AG
The Austrian Post is a project partner of Smarter Together. For the first time ever, Austrian Post added within the project Smarter Together two e-vans to its vehicle fleet and is using them for the delivery of bigger parcels as part of their effort to achieve their goal of CO2-free delivery in urban areas. Additional actiivites ensured such as the instalatoin of 450 parcel collection/delivery boxes sustainability of the project goals, such as collection boxes.
In April 2018, Sycube opened Simmering’s first e-bike terminal at the Vienna Central Cemetery. The Central cemetery proved an excellent partner which was interested in offering a modern mobility service to its many visitors to help them navigate the expansive site. A second terminal is located at the mobility point. 12 e-bikes and a cargo bike are in operation. The e-bikes are available via the SIMBike App or through a chip card offered at the terminal. Sycube has developed the whole system including a new locking system for the e-bikes. The project also offers a Bakfiets e-cargo bike at the Mobility Station "WienMobil Station".
Austrian INstitute of Technology (AIT)
For all smart solutions implemented within Smarter Together Vienna, an integrated monitoring concept has been established by AIT and has been tested in a co-creation process involving various city stakeholders. It covers the whole automated process of sensor-based data collection, transfer and storage on the Vienna data management platform (smartdata.wien) as well as the final consolidation, processing and timely visualization of the results to generate relevant indicators including energy savings achieved, share of RES and CO2 reduction.AIT is also a key partner in the smart mobility project part as it facilitated a series of mobility surveys (partly online) partly on-site in cooperation with the Urban Renewal Office (GB*) which included also their analysis.
- Workshops were held in the two refurbished schools. They were created autonomously by the teachers that also explain the technology of the four new zero-energy-gyms.
- Wokshops by Science Pool: Science Pool is a local NGO which seeks so spark scientific interest in school kids in Eastern Austria, focusing particularly on energy, mobility and other smart city issues. So far, it has reached more than 630 children from 10 schools. Science Pool uses interactive methods designed to raise enthusiasm for smart city issues and technology. These workshops would usually not be affordable for typical families in the district.
- First research festival in Simmering: In November 2018, Science Pool hosted Simmering’s first research festival. The festival built on the series of workshops in schools, and four classes from three schools have continued their smart city workshops autonomously. Their results have been awarded with a prize presented by City Councillor Kathrin Gaál and renowned local science hero “Science Buster” Elisabeth Oberzaucher.
- Mural painting: Some 50 youngsters painted a mural in a public space next to a railway station with the statement “Simmering is my future”. The activity was facilitated by the Urban Renewal Office (GB*) in co-operation with Balu&Du, a local streetwork association.
- Keith Haring-style mural: The project was developed on the initiative of the refurbished sport-centred secondary school, and was promoted by Smarter Together.
- Education quarter cooperation: An intensive cooperation amongs educaitonal institutions of the district has been established and important impetus has been provided by Smarter Together.
- ENZI: Two so called "ENZI"-benches that are emblematic for the high end culture district in the city center have been provided by Smarter Together and painted by the pupils in June 2019 and serve as a landmark for a positive distric dynamics and change.
- Gamification: Offering easy access information and triggering interest through low-threshold outreach: Smarter Together employed gamification concepts to reach out to kids and through them also to their parents with often diverse backgrounds, thus contributing to community building across traditional borders. BEAT THE STREET has been implemented in 2017 and 2018 with overwhelming success so that it had been extended to the district of Donaustadt. Munich is already coppying it. A photo competition and an energy quiz add to the gamification concept.
- VHS Simmering: the local adult education college and cultural centre, has become a key geographic anchor of the project. Numerous events take place in the events hall and numerous workshops and trainings in the class rooms. The Municipal Library has a high quality touch screen computer with project information available to the users. Thematic events, on-site-visits, education days are being held in the VHS Simmering. A high end computer has been installed in the local municipal library.
- Urban project governance
- Citizen participation
Smart Citizen Focus: SIMmobile
Giving “Smart City” a Human Dimension is a guiding motto of Smarter Together. Smarter Together tackles environmental and societal challenges that already have an impact on the local communities and on the citizens’ everyday life. Smarter Together strives to ensure that the necessary changes are supported and “owned” by the society as a whole. An open and participatory dialogue builds the trust and the commitment of stakeholders that is needed to ensure that many citizens are willing to contribute their individual “last mile” of environmental action. Over 10,000 local inhabitants directly participated in Smarter Together activities designed to reach different target groups through a variety of approaches. Outreach was either based on information or gamification, making children the real Smart City ambassadors.
The SIMmobile is a mobile information and communication booth in public spaces used by a variety of partners and local actors for their outreach to the local population. In co-operation with and operated by the Urban Renewal Office (Gebietsbetreuung Stadterneuerung, GB*) – a key institutional player with regard to citizen participation – the SIMmobile has been set up as a mobile Urban Living Lab. Numerous institutions like the Science Pool, Balu & Du or the WAFF (the Vienna Employment Promotion Fund) used the SIMmobile for their outreach activities. From spring to autumn, it opens on average three days a week in different locations for six consecutive weeks before moving to another location in the district. It provides relevant project-related or general information as well as interactive tools and also offers workshops. On one occasion, the SIMmobile made a stop at the Siemens factory site to disseminate project information and gather ideas for sustainable mobility solutions. The inputs received resulted among other things in an e-bike and an e-car charging station implemented by the Siemens management.
“Kids in focus” has become another pillar of Smarter Together’s outreach and particularly, in our effort to anchor responsible environmental behaviour in all generations. Starting from the school refurbishment, the smart kids programme encompassed a variety of activities.
As large scale social housing refurbishment is key to Smarter Together Vienna, the inclusion and participation of tenants was and is central to the project. Key insitutional partners in that regards are the Urban Renewal Office (GB*) for the overall communication with citizens, the "wohnpartner" that ensure the dialogue with the tenants of municipal housing and wohnbund:consult, a private institute, ensuring the dialogue with the tenants in the social housing BWSG. All training in regards to environmental friendly behaviour and action upon refurbishment was provided by the free of charge consultancy "DIE UMWELTBERATUNG".
Balu&Du are streetworksrs focusing on the work with youngsters in public space. In cooperation with tge Urban Renwal office, Balu&Du is responsible for a mural painted by some 50 youngsters.
Quality of life / density
Smarter Together's focus on citizens participation is key to the success story and the wide acceptance of the change process. Kids in focus give additional credibility to the endeavours. Technical aspects of refurbishment as well as the participatory processes of tenant's inclusion contribute to the feeling of being heard by the governacne, the politicians. Youth workshops contribute to the societal integration and societal dynamics.
Culture and heritage
Smarter Together's focus on the cooperation with educaitonal institutions such as the local school, the educaiton center VHS Simmering, the local library, the support of arts workshops with kids are contributing to the identification with the community. Characteristically, youngsters branded "their" mural painted within Smarter Together with "Simmering is my future". A local rocker, Marco Pogo from the band "Turbobier" used this mural as a background for a huge story in a newspaper. Tus one can assume that Smarter Together has indeed "landed" on-site in the hearts of the people.
Smarter Together's focus on citizens participation through the inclusion of a variety of stakeholders and institutions ensured that a vast variety of target groups have been reached. Key to this was the mobile urban living lab SIMmobile that changed its location. From spring to autumn, it opens on average three days a week in different locations for six consecutive weeks before moving to another location in the district. It provides relevant project-related or general information as well as interactive tools and also offers workshops.
The tenants of the social housing refurbishment sites have been reached through institutions such as Urban Renewal Office (GB*), the wohnpartner or wohnbund:consult.
The focus on the refurbishment of a municipal secondary school had as an effect that the variety of the society has been reached thourgh the kids in the school. The mobility game Beat the Street included in the first yeat 11 school from all over the district, similar the second year (although due to less funding less in number) and one could see the whole population in its diversity participating in the game for a common goal.
Social inclusion and safety
Social inclusion is key to Vienna's social housing policy providing to a large segment of the society access to funded housing thus structurally avoiding ghettoization as known elsewhere. Smarter Together topped this key policy by providing for instance an e-carsharing in a social housing estate (BWSG) or by initiating and supporting the renewal of the municipal school site combined with a huge number of workshops for kids.
Ambient air quality and health
Strategically, Smarter Together elaborated a local mobility strategy. It also implemented a series of smart city project with a concrete impact on CO2 reduction and air quality. On the Siemens site alone, 20.000 liters diesel are spared per year thanks to the project activities and additional actions resulting from the project. According to feedback from workers at Siemens, the use of the e-forklifts improved their ambient air quality.
The smart mobility focus and mobility games were not only implemented with healt institions and Vienna's Mobility Agency, they also directy targeted healt in a broader vision by activating the individual participation.
- Proximity services
Bike Repair Workshops
Within the outreach activities of the mobile urban living lab "SIMmobile", the Urban Renwal Office (GB*) also facilitated several bike repair workshops free of charge in order to boost the use of private bikes for daily mobility.https://www.smartertogether.at/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/glossysummary_AT_EN_web.pdf
- Proximity services
VHS Simmering, the local adult education college and cultural centre, has become a key geographic anchor of the project. Numerous events take place in the events hall and numerous workshops and trainings in the class rooms. The Municipal Library has a high quality touch screen computer with project information available to the users. Thematic events, on-site visits, one touchscreen computer, education day are only some of the numerous activies implemented in cooperation with the VHS Simmering.
Smarter Together has a seriey of key economic players in the project area.
With its activities, it supported the attractivity of the industrial site of SIEMENS. The collaboration with the Austrian Post supported their innovation strive. The cooperation with the PME Sycube helped to strenghten its business viability and innovation. The cooperation with the social housing providers enlarged their field of activities. The initiative to refurbish the school site (a 27 Million euro project) induced a series of additional economic activities, up to the local caterers who give feedback that the workers come to lunch to their places which secures additional jobs. A high-end touchscreeen computer has been installed at the reach of self employed people in order to support their economic viability and innovation.
The initial EU funding of 7 million euro in Vienna triggered an overall investment sum of over 80 million euro in far more that 40 single projects.
Smarter Together's strategic cooperation with the Urban Renewal Office and other stakeholders like the environmental information center "DIE UMWELTBERATNG" supported i.a. also circula economiy as it serves the CO2 reduciton and contributions of individuals ot this goals.
- Business development
- Business parks
E-Forklifts at Siemens
Smartter Together facilitated the replacement of old diesel driven forklifts with six e-forklifts. The employees were involved in the selection process. Thi led not only to an concrete environmental impact (noise, air polution, CO2 saving) but triggered a whole series of activiites by Siemens that had invested around 1 Million euros in the project. As a result, new energy-saving charging stations for small devices have been tested an subsequently rolled out. A new centre for small items logistics has been designed and built, adding value to the initial new e-forklifts. The consumption of diesel has been reduced drastically thanks to this set of measures and the ecological balance of the industrial site improved. Another result of the co-creative process is the installation of charging stations for employees’ e-bikes as well as two charging stations for e-cars.
Smarter Together Vienna is the only H2020 project focusing on indutrial logistics.
A key task as foreseen by the H2020 call on smart cities and communities was to ensure e-mobility. Smarter Together designed and implementes a series of projects including:
- the elaboration of a local mobility strategy
- the support in the implementation, monitoring and update of Vienna's Smart City Framework Strategy.
- e-carsharing in the social housing estate BWSG Hauffgasse
- e-bikesharing at the Central cemetery
- elaboration and set up of the fist Vienna Mobility Point "WienMobil Station" including e-bikesharing
- e-cargobike sharing on two sites
- smart mobility for kids including gamification as a tool
- walking caffe in cooperation with Vienna's Mobiilty Agency
- industrial logistics especially at the SIEMENS site
- Soft transportation
- Collaborative transportation
In 2017, a special promotion campaign for e-cargo bikes was run in Vienna featuring the common plattform www.graetzelrad.at. Smarter Together tagged onto this campaign to promote and to provide information about cargo bikes. The project also offers a Bakfiets e-cargo bike to citizens through the local GB*. This fits in well with the project focus on smart mobility.
- Soft transportation
- Collaborative transportation
Whilst focusing on energetic refurbishment of the housing estate, the e-carsharing provided by housing estate BWSG with support of the EU-H2020 funding (Smarter Together) adds on the quality of services and contributes to the social togetherness resp. integration in the housing estate. It is implemented with support of the mediation institute wohnbund:consult as a facilitator for the communication, Caruso as a carsharer.
Special importance is given to the so called "Active Group" of some 15 tenants that take care of the every day management and promotion of the new service. The Active Group was intensively involved in the set up of the e-carsharing including the decision on the tipes of cars to be provided. It is also involved in the elaboration of the final business model upon ending of the EU funding period. 3 e-cars drive on average some 3.500 km per month.
In addition, as a result of Smarter Together cooperation with the "Sustainability Challenge", a inter-university interdeparmental cooperation of four major Vienna universities, students are also participating in the development of the final business model in 2018/2019 as their contribution to the achievemet of the UN SDGs.
- Soft transportation
- Collaborative transportation
Arguably, one of the nicest ways to save energy is by using active mobility (walking and cycling) in daily life. The second best mobility option is to use eco-friendly public transport followed by sharing e-mobility services and, lastly, individually owned e-vehicles.
Smarter Together implementes a series of activating mobility projects with literaly thousands of participants: a Walking Caffee, bike repair workshops and Beat the Street in 2017 and 2018 with some 10.000 participants in both years together (in the second year anonter district, Donaustadt, joined the project too).
Also, a local mobility survey, a local mobility strategy and a green path strategy have been developed.
The drawing up of a local mobility strategy at the outset of the project was an important foundation for demonstration activities. A SWOT analysis of all modes of transport was carried out and potential measures and locations of mobility services were identified. In a dialogue with the citizens on the street and relevant stakeholders, the mobility measures were closely interconnected with the urban renewable approach at neighbourhood level. As a result, concrete measures in the public space have been initiated.
In 2016 and 2018, two mobility surveys were carried out (one on-site and one on the internet) by the Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT) in close co-operation with the project partners and the GB*. 241 full samples were evaluated in 2016, and the ongoing monitoring was intended to assess changes on mobility patterns. Results were shared with all partners to feed into individual projects and monitoring.
In September 2017, Smarter Together received the Mobility Award of the Verkehrsclub Österreich (VCÖ) in the category ‘Active Mobility and Public Space’.
Key partners in these endeavours were the Vienna Mobility Agency, the Urban Renewal Office, AIT, Dopplinger & Dopplinger, Stadtschulrat für Wien, Boehringer Ingelheim, Intelligent Health, Face Diabetes.
Smart City strategy
The holistic approach of Smarter Together fundamentally reflext Vienna's internationally aknowledged innovative approach in Smart City issues. Smarter Together tightly cooperated in the preparation of the project itself and later during implementation with the respective department (MA 18) as well as with UIV (Urban Innovation Vienna) in order to foster synergies. During project implementaiton, the Vienna Smart City Framework Strategy untewent a monitoring and Smarter Together was included this ensuring that innovations and finding of Smarter Together were included in the update process. Smarter Together is also included in all follow up projects such as PlaceCity in Floridsdorf district and RenoBooster.
Important is also the international P2P exchange and the cooperation with the H2020 network.
Another aspect is the cooperation with scientifi institutions as well as the strategy to provide students fields of experience and research such as within the "Sustainability Challenge" adding to the long term sustainability of the project's philosophy.
Smarter Together is included in the monitoring and update process of the Smart City Frameworks Strategy as well as in follow up projects such as Place City and RenoBooster.
- Renewable energies
- Low-carbon materials/ infrastructure
Zero-Energy-Gyms for the secondary schools NMS Enkplatz 4
The reconstruction and modernisation of the school gyms and the addition of 16 classrooms to the schools serves as a testbed for the use of new energy solutions in non-residential buildings. The extension encompasses 4 zero-energy gyms, 16 classrooms, and a total gross floor area of 3,800 m2. The renewable energy will be sourced from a photovoltaic system (67 kWp) and near-surface geothermal energy (heat pump). The latter will also provide cooling facilities to inhabitants in anticipation of periods of extreme heat. The solar thermal system allows for surplus heat to be fed into the secondary district heating system. This is an important testbed for the integration of renewable heat sources into the district heating system. An ICT-based central monitoring and energy management system to regulate the solar heat energy flow into the secondary district heating grid will be established. After completion of the construction works, a generous open air sports area with around 3,500 m2 will be available to the 1,000 pupils.
The new construction of the gym offers additional opportunities for leisure activities of residents of the neighbourhood.
Upon a first feasibility study, an international European architecturall call has been launched with some 34 competing teams. Burtscher & Durig Architects won the call ensuring a maximum open air space (as the only team) thanks to the idea of installing the four gyms underground. Vasko + Partner Ingeneure provide the energetical solutions. Another innovative element is that upon completion, the energy management will have a transition period where Vasko + Partner will ensure the fine tuning and the knowledge transfer the the city administration unit MA 34. Te planning og the open space is planned by "Dn D Landschaftsplanung".
A survey in the schoolyard on ideas for the future school has been carried out by Urban Renwal Office (GB*) while the SIMmobile was stationed for one month in front of the schoolyard of the NMS Enkplatz. Results have been forwarded and integrated in the planning of the school. As a result of the particular interest in “solar benches” for the future courtyard, those benches have been installed in 2017. They include charging stations for smartphones.
The Science Pool provided smart city trainings.
More info :
Smarter Together is tightly linked to Vienna's well developed refurbishment policy as regards funding, information and implementation. The reduction of heat energy demand upon refurbishment of up to 80 % are standard. In addition, Smarter Together provided the opportunity to test new approaches such as PV on municipal housing, researhc on new solutions in the BWSG estate or additional services. Special focus was given to the tenant's participation and involvement as in a final stage the best technology is worth less if not used by the users. Therefore a close cooperation with participation oriented institutions was key as well as with environmental councelling "DIE UMWELTBERATUNG".